TMS data revealed 12/13 subjects had asymmetric motor representation (lateralised dominance) for the pharynx (6 left, 6 right) with significantly larger responses observed in the lateralised projection (p < 0.001). FMRI data (figure 1
) also revealed asymmetric activations in both sensorimotor cortices in each subject for the different tasks which were used as seed regions for tractography. Largest activations were observed in primary motor cortices (Brodmann Area (BA) 4) after water swallowing, predominantly right lateralised. By contrast, tongue elevation and saliva swallowing produced a greater number of left lateralised brain areas, particularly pre- and supplementary-motor cortex (BA 6) as well as areas involved with language and speech processing (BA 22,40,44). Tractography revealed larger tract volumes in the hemispheric dominant projection predicted by TMS compared to the non-dominant projection for water but not for saliva swallowing or tongue elevations (p < 0.001).